Windows 98 Startup Programs

Program Name Comments
*Adaptec DirectCD Allows the user to drag and drop files to a CD-R. If this capability isn't used frequently, this doesn't need to always be loaded.
Adobe Gamma Loader.exe Used to load graphics parameters. Not necessary in Startup.
Ahqtb More controls for a Creative sound card. These functions are all available through the Start menu.
alogserv.exe A McAfee program. It is reported to cause jerky graphics response in a number of games.
*AudioHQ This loads the desktop control panel for the Creative Live card. Leave it checked if you want it.
*AvconsoleEXE This is an antivirus program. Some users don't have AV running all the time, preferring rather to do manual scans. It's your call.
*C:\Program File\Dell\Motive Related to Dell's Resolution Assistant
CleanSweep, SmartSweep, InternetSweep All three of these CleanSweep modules can be run manually.
Cal reminder shortcut Produces a pop-up reminder of events scheduled using the MS Works Calendar.
Controller This starts WinFax Pro at startup. Not needed.
Critical Update Contacts Microsoft frequently looking for updates. Uncheck it and visit the update site manually.
*CSInject.exe Related to CleanSweep. Unchecking it will disable some functions of CleanSweep. Details are available here.
*CTSysVol This is associated with a Creative sound card, and adds volume controls to the Windows volume controls
DDT See DellWB1
DEMCleanup See DellWB1
DellWB1, DellWB2, DellWB3, etc. These programs are used by Dell as part of the software download checkout at the factory. If they are still on your machine, they serve no purpose. You can delete them by going to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE|Software|Microsoft|Windows|CurrentVersion|Run and right-clicking any found there and selecting "Delete." Do the same for HKLM|Software|Microsoft|Windows|CurrentVersion|RunServices.
*devldr16.exe Associated with Creative Labs sound cards. Provides audio support for DOS applications. If you don't have those, you don't need this.
Disknag This is a little program that reminds you to make your backup diskettes. It is not necessary in Startup.
*EM-EXEC This is mouse software. Some users uncheck it with no problem. Try unchecking it and if problems occur, restore it to Startup.
ENCMON The Encompass Monitor. This program is the Connect Direct Program. It is more trouble than it is worth and few use it. There are instructions for its removal in the Dell Knowledge Base, here.
*EPSON Background Monitor This little utility is supposed to keep an Epson printer ready for quick printing. Users report little difference whether it is on or not.
**explorer This is required for Windows.
**FEELitDeviceManager Associated with Immersion TouchSense devices (Logitech Wingman Force Feedback Mouse and possibly other peripherals)
** This is the Human Interface Device Server, it is required if you are using USB Audio Devices
HP ScanPicture Used with an HP scanner. It will load when the scanner is going to be used--no need to have it available all the time.
*ICQ NetDetect Agent This automatically connects to ICQ when the user goes online. Not necessary, but a convenience.
ICSMGR Monitors DNS and DHCP requests for ICS (Internet Connection Sharing).
Iomega Disk Icons All this does is change the icon form the Iomega drive.
*Iomega Startup Options This is related to the Zip drive. It adds the right-click context menu selections for the Zip drive.
Iomega Watch Related to the Zip drive--not needed.
LoadPowerProfile This is required if you are using Power Management (accessed through Start|Settings|Control Panel|Power). If so, there will be two instances. This is normal.
Loadqm Loads the MSN Explorer Query Manager--a waste of resources and bandwidth.
*Machine Debug Manager Used by developers for debugging. Those who have encountered it have unchecked it with no degradation in performance.
*Mad.exe Related to Dell's Resolution Assistant
*McAfeeWEbScanX Antivirus program. Keep it unless you are sure you will faithfully do manual scans and practice safe computing.
*MiniLog This activates ZoneAlarm's logging module. It is not required if logging is not enabled (by checking "Log alerts to a text file" under the Alerts button.
Mixghost This is management software for Altec Lansing speakers. If a change is needed, the user can launch it from the Start menu.
Microsoft Critical Update Detects and installs critical updates from the Microsoft site. Most users prefer to install these manually.
Microsoft Find Fast This program is unnecessary and troublesome when it is running.
Microsoft Greetings Reminders Are you willing to give up resources to remember Aunt Sadie's birthday? Me either.
Microsoft Office Startup A resource hog and not needed. If quick access to Office is needed, put a shortcut on the desktop. (Some users report that unchecking this item cause difficulty. Bear this in mind if it is removed and performance is degraded.)
Microsoft Works Calendar Reminders See Greetings Reminders, above.
mmtray Places a Music Box Jukebox icon in the task tray. The program works fine without it.
*Motive Monitor Related to Dell's Resolution Assistant
*MSMSGS MSN Messenger Service. Not required at startup unless it is used regularly. An easier way to remove it from startup is to open the program, go to Tools|Options and uncheck "Run this program when Windows starts" on the Preferences tab. f you are running IE6, you should also go into Outlook Express to Tools|Options and on the General tab uncheck the item that loads MSN Messenger at startup.
*NAV defalert This a reminder from Norton Antivirus to update virus signatures. Leave it if you think you might forget.
**Norton AutoProtect This is Norton's real-time scanner for viruses. It can save a lot of grief in the event an email with a contaminated attachment.
Norton Crashguard Monitor Generally considered an unstable program, most users avoid it.
*Norton Email Protect This is a feature which sets up a proxy server to isolate the main system from email-borne viruses. If this feature is not desired, it is recommended that it be turned of in the programs control panel under Options|E-Mail Protection. When it is inactivated incoming email is still scanned as it is saved to your hard disk, but no proxy server is involved as an additional layer of protection.
Norton System Doctor A major resource hog, you will be well off without it.
OSSetupDebug See DellWB1
**PCHealth This is a part of Windows ME which is used to provide Restore functionality.
*Pointer This is mouse utilities, and is required for the wheel to work with full functionality.
QuickShelf 99 Places an icon in the system tray for launching Microsoft Bookshelf. Use the Start menu or a shortcut instead.
Power Reg Scheduler Displays reminders to register software. Not needed.
Real Jukebox Systray This is the Jukebox counterpart to Real Player. It makes no discernible difference if it is not running.
RealTray A similar program to Real Jukebox Systray for RealPlayer v7.
Reminder Used with Microsoft Money. Not needed at Startup.
rnaapp Used in Dial Up Networking. It loads when you initiate a connection. There is no particular reason to have it load at startup.
run=hpfsched This program pops up a reminder to register a new HP printer or scanner. It is not necessary.
**Rundll32.exe Required for Dial Up Networking. This also appears in the Startup list if the resolution monitor (used to change monitor resolution on the fly) is placed in the system tray even if unchecked in Startup.
*RxMon, RxUser Related to Dell's Resolution Assistant
**ScanReg This program scans your Registry at startup and makes copies. Useful for backing up in the event of a corrupted Registry.
*Scheduling Agent Keep this if Task Scheduler is being used. I not, it can be eliminated.
*SpeedRacer Software for a Creative sound card. Not needed at startup.
*SSDPSRV.exe Provides Simple Service Discovery Protocol (SSDP) and General Event Notification Architecture (GENA) services for Universal Plug and Play functionality.
**StateMgr Another part of Windows ME required for Restore functionality.
*Stimon.exe or StillimageMonitor Scanner software. Can be deleted unless an HP scanner is used in which case eliminating it will cause BSODs.
**Systray Required for your clock and other items in the System Tray.
*TaskMonitor This is a Microsoft utility which keeps track of the rate of usage of programs to make defragging more efficient. With short seek times and high transfer rates of today's hard drives, it is probably superfluous.
*TCAUTIEXE, TCAUDIAG These are associated with the 3COM diagnostic module (3COM NIC Doctor). No further information is available.
*Tips Provides tips for using the mouse--probably not needed by most users.
*Touch Manager A keyboard utility. Not required for Windows, but a very nice program. NOTE:: some users report that unchecking this item resulted in loss of screen and power saver functions.
**TrueVector Required for users running the ZoneAlarm firewall
*TweakUI Some users will need to have this loaded at startup to enable some of its options. If TweakUI is used to enter a network password it will be listed twice.
*VoyetraTray This provides an abbreviated Control Group for the Turtle Beach Montego II sound functions/associated with AudioStation 3 and 32.
*Vs Stat EXE McAfee antivirus program. If you are careful about downloads and faithfully perform manual virus scans this can be unchecked. For most users, however, it should stay.
VsecomrEXE McAfee "nag" popup to encourage users to upgrade to the latest version.
*Vshwin32.exe Also McAfee. Not needed if manual scans of downloads and disk contents are faithfully done--should remain checked for most users.
*VsStat.exe See Vshwin32.exe above.
Winmgmt.exe Used for Enterprise Management. If you are not an IT Administrator you don't need this to be running.
winmodem This is not needed.
*Wkcalrem The Works Calendar Reminder. Leave it checked if you want the calendar to remind you of something.
WorksFUD (wkfud.exe) A marketing program for Microsoft Works. DEFINITELY NOT NEEDED.
WKDETECT An program that automatically looks for updates for Microsoft Works. The user can easily do this manually at convenient intervals.
ZipDisk Icons Related to the Zip drive--not needed.
**ZoneAlarm This is the ZoneAlarm firewall program.

General Computing Tips

JavaScript Tip - Quick Back Button

If you are just getting started using JavaScript, then this will be a very easy and helpful way to get to know it. If you would like to find hundreds of other free scripts out here on the Internet, just type in "Free Javascripts" into your favorite search engine and you will see tons to choose from.

In this tip, if your visitor clicks on the provided text, they will be sent back to the web page that they previously visited. I have used this JavaScript before inside of popup windows.


1. Copy the above script and paste it in a blank notepad page.
2. Re-copy it to your clipboard.
3. Place your curser on the spot you would like your link to appear on the page and then switch to HTML view.
4. Paste the script in the spot your curser is blinking.
5. Save your changes and then switch back to Normal View.

Add to Favorites - JavaScript Tip

Copy the script below and then paste it into a blank note pad (or other text editor) page. Then re-copy it to your web page.
This part goes in the <> section.

Copy the script below and then paste it into a blank note pad (or other text editor) page. Then re-copy it to your web page.

Free Wi-Fi High Speed Internet Access

It is important to know that free access is unsecured. So, if you are going to do some online banking or ordering online using a credit card, your personal information could be compromised.

Most locations that you find that offer free Internet access will not have any restriction, but there are some that may require one or more of the following:

* You may be required to be a guest at their facility.
* You may be required to make a purchase before receiving a login and password.
* Some may ask some survey questions as part of a login process.

Below, you will find a listing of several businesses and institutions that typically offer Free Wireless Internet Access.

* Academic Locations:

You may find that in most of the larger institutions, they will control the Internet access and restrict it to students and staff only. But, there are many that offer free Internet access with no restrictions.

* Cafes, coffee shops, restaurants:

You will find that many of these locations provide free wireless Internet access without any restriction. Some may require a purchase in order to obtain a login and password.

* Hotels, Motels and Resorts:

Most of these locations offer free access to their guests only. But, you will also find many that have no restrictions at all.

* Libraries:

More and more cities are now offering free wireless Internet access to the public. In some cases, you may need to obtain a library card to gain a login and password. Also, many public libraries have software in place that restrict access to questionable sites.

* RV Parks and Campgrounds:

Many of these locations will require a login and password to gain access to their network.

* Vacation Rental Properties:

These locations will require a login and password to gain access to their network.

WLAN Radio Frequency Range

The range of a wireless product cannot be solely controlled by the product itself. There are many variables that factor in to a wireless products range abilities.

Signal interference can be broken into three main categories:

* Physical interference such as from walls, through floors and ceilings, and other permanent fixtures in the vicinity.

* Hidden physical interference, like from materials in your walls that cause signal deterioration.

* Electromagnetic interference which is nothing more than a radio wave interfering with another radio wave. Such as, a microwave that is in use will interfere with the signal of another radio wave device.

A typical WLAN can achieve a range of 500 feet (164 meters) depending on the number of obstacles that it encounters. If extended coverage is required, you can always use additional access points to accomplish this.

Low Laptop Battery Alarm

If you would like to set up a low battery warning alarm for your laptop, here's how:

1. Go to Start>> Control Panel>> Power Options>> Alarm tab
2. Using the slider, select the desired setting.
3. Click Alarm Action of the alarm notification type and the power level you would like it set at.

Alarm notification settings are:

* Sound Alarm
* Display Message

Alarm Action choices are:

* Standy by
* Hibernate
* Shutdown

4. Apply all of your changes and exit all windows.

Note: The described Power Options in Control Panel may vary with your computer depending on its hardware configuration.

If the Low Battery Alarm will not function, it may be because the Power Meter is not on the taskbar.

Refer to the MSKB link below for assistance:

The Tablet PC

You may have seen someone operating a large screen monitor with a pen. This more than likely is a Tablet PC. Tablet PC's are a great mobile solution for people on the go. Here are just a few of the features in Tablet PC's powered by the Windows XP Tablet PC Edition operating system:

A pen takes the place of a mouse. Using the pen, you can perform a variety of functions such as:

* Select files
* Drag and Drop
* Open files
* Handwrite notes and communications

There are a number of companies manufacturing Tablet PC's. The major differences in these Tablet PC's are:

* Screen size
* Processing speed
* Design

The three different styles of Tablet PC's that are available are:

<>The Convertible:
This Tablet PC has a keyboard and looks much like a conventional Laptop PC. The convertible's screen rotates 180 degrees so that the screen can be laid flat on the keyboard to make it more comfortable when reading and writing.

<>The Slate:
This Tablet PC is a super light weight with a very slim design. Some of these models can come with a detachable keyboard.

<>The Rugged:
This model Tablet PC has a couple of very rugged features such as:

* Industrial strength shell
* Shock mounted hard drive

The rugged Tablet PC is perfect for those that work in particularly harsh environments.

All of these Tablet PC's include docking solutions. Once docked, you will be able to connect a monitor, keyboard and mouse.

Avoid SPIM

SPIM is the instant messaging version of SPAM. If you use AOL Instant Messaging, MSN Messenger or Yahoo Messenger then you are already familiar with SPIM. Basically, SPIM is an unwanted instant message that tries to force feed a product or service to you.

In this tip I will show you how you can avoid receiving these unwanted messages.

In AOL 9.0:

1. Click the "More Options" button
2. Select "IM Settings"
3. Click the "Privacy and Security" tab
4. Select the "Allow only people on my buddy list" button

Note: AOL's free AIM software does not have these options.

In MSN Messenger:

1. Go to Tools>> Options
2. Select Privacy
3. Place a checkmark next to the following entry: "Only people on my Allow List can see my status and send me messages"

In Yahoo Messenger:

1. Go to Messenger>> Privacy Options
2. Select "Ignore List"
3. Place a checkmark next to the following entry: "Ignore anyone who is not on my Messenger List"

Protect your children while online

The Internet can be a very dangerous place for young impressionable children out looking for fun. There are online predators in chat rooms that lay and wait for unsuspecting kids. Before allowing children to access the Internet, be sure to have a few rules in place and that they understand the importance of following these simple rules:

1. Never give our your full name, address or phone number to anyone you don't know.
2. Never give out your Internet password to anyone, even if they say they're from your Internet service.
3. Never agree to meet with anyone without first checking with your parents. If you do agree to meet, make sure that it is in a public place and that your parents are present.

It is increasingly important to ensure that your kids are surfing safely as the rise in Internet crimes becomes more and more common. There are several programs that can help with this, however, parental supervision is the most important tool for keeping children out of dangerous situations online.

A couple of programs to look at are:

<>iProtectYou Pro Web Filter v7.07 is an Internet filtering and Parental control software program that allows parents, schools and libraries to protect children from harmful information on the Internet.
<>CyberPatrol's Internet safety software lets you take control of your Internet access ...even when you can't be there!

Buying a Desktop or a Laptop?

I often get asked what is best to buy, a desktop or a laptop computer? There are things that you need to consider when deciding on this. I have outlined a few of these below:

* Are you looking for a more mobile solution? Are you going to be carrying your computer around the house and using it at different locations? Do you travel a lot and have a need for a mobile computer? Do you go on frequent business trips where a laptop computer would be handy to have? If you answered yes to any of these questions above, then you will be better off with a laptop computer.

* Laptops will have a better resale value than desktop computers.

* If your don't really have a need for mobility, but space is a definite consideration, then you can always buy a slim-line desktop computer.

* You will get more functionality with a desktop computer for the same price as a laptop.

* If you work heavily with graphics programs or action games, you may enjoy the screen resolution and better functionality of a desktop computer.

* If you are looking for a computer that you can upgrade in the future, then you will need a desktop computer.

* If you work on a computer for extended periods of time, you may want a desktop computer for the larger screen size available, better screen resolution and larger keyboard.

* If your laptop is out of warranty, keep in mind that laptop repairs can be very costly.

Printing in Notepad

When you copy and paste a document into Notepad for printing, you do have some control over the print settings. Here is what you can do:

Go to File>> Page Setup. Under the 'Paper' category you can select the paper size that you are working with along with the paper source you would like to print from.

While still in the Page Setup window and in the Header and Footer text boxes, you will find syntax that will make Notepad do different things, such as:

* &f - shows the file name or "Untitled" if it doesn't have one
* &d - displays the date
* &t - inserts the time according to your computer's clock
* &p - shows the page number

Notepad allows for the use of more than one combination in the header and footer text boxes.

* && - puts in an ampersand (&)
* &l (for left)
* &c (for center)
* &r (for right) will align the header or footer.

BIOS Generic Passwords









Russian Award Passwords:

%øåñòü ïpîáåëîâ%
%äåâÿòü ïpîáåëîâ%


Press both mouse buttons repeatedly during the boot






Hold down the Shift key as the computer is booting.

BIOS Beep Codes

AMI (American Megatrends') BIOS

Beep Codes Message

one short DRAM refresh failure (Problem with memory)
two short Parity circuit failure
three short Base 64K RAM failure
four short System Timer failure
five short Processor failure
six short Keyboard Controller / Gate A20 failure
seven short Virtual Mode Exception error
eight short Display Memory Read/Write failure (fault with video card)
nine short ROM BIOS Checksum error (fault with BIOS chip)
ten short CMOS Shutdown Read/Write error
eleven short Cache memory
one long Passed (no errors)
one long, two short Video failure
one long, three short Base / Extended Memory failure
one long, eight short Display / Retrace Test failure

AST Research BIOS

Beep Codes Message

one short Low level processor verification test failed (POST 1)
two short Clearing keyboard controller buffers failed (POST 2)
three short Keyboard controller reset failed (POST 3)
four short Low level keyboard controller interface test (POST 4)
five short Reading data from keyboard controller failed (POST 5)
six short System board support chip initialization failed (POST 6)
seven short Processor register read/write verify test failed (POST 7)
eight short CMOS timer initialization failed (POST 8)
nine short ROM BIOS checksum test failed (POST 9)
ten short Initialize primary video (POST 10)
eleven short 8254 timer channel 0 test failed (POST 11)
twelve short 8254 timer channel 1 test failed (POST 12)
thirteen short 8254 timer channel 2 test failed (POST 13)
fourteen short CMOS power-on and time test failed (POST 14)
fifteen short CMOS shutdown byte test failed (POST 15)
one long DMA channel 0 test failed (POST 16)
one long, one short DMA channel 1 test failed (POST 17)
one long, two short DMA page register test failed (POST 18)
one long, three short Keyboard controller interface test failed (POST 19)
one long, four short Memory refresh toggle test failed (POST 20)
one long, five short First 64 KB memory test failed (POST 21)
one long, six short Setup interrupt vector table failed (POST 22)
one long, seven short Video initialization failed (POST 23)
one long, eight short Video memory test failed (POST 24)

Award BIOS

Beep Codes Message

one short Passed (no errors)
two short Any non-fatal error
one long, two short Video failure
one long, three short Keyboard Controller failure (applies to 286, 386 and 486)

Compaq BIOS

Beep Codes Message

one short Indicates that the system is booting properly
two short General BIOS error - remedy unknown
one short, two long Memory Module
one long, one short BIOS ROM checksum error
one long, two short Video error
7 Beeps: one long, one short, one long, one short, pause, one long, two short AGP Video
one long continuous tone Memory Module


Beep Codes Message

none Power Supply or System Board failure (possible short)
one short Passed (no errors)
one short (blank screen) Video error (check cable)
one short (no boot) Floppy Drive error
two short Configuration Error (displayed on screen)
repeating short Power Supply or System Board failure
continuous Power Supply or System Board / Keyboard stuck
one long, one short System Board failure
one long, two short Video (Mono/CGA) failure (check cable)
one long, three short Video (EGA) failure (check cable)
three long Keyboard Card error

Mylex BIOS

Beep Codes Message

one Normal boot
two Video adapter error
three Keyboard controller error
four Keyboard error
five PIC 0 error
six PIC 1 error
seven DMA page register error
eight RAM refresh error
nine RAM data error
ten RAM parity error
eleven DMA controller 0 error
twelve CMOS RAM error
thirteen DMA controller 1 error
fourteen CMOS RAM battery error
fifteen CMOS RAM checksum error
sixteen BIOS ROM checksum error

Mylex 386 BIOS

Beep Codes Message
one long Normal boot
two long Video adapter error
one long, one short, one long Keyboard controller error
one long, two short, one long Keyboard error
one long, three short, one long PIC 0 error
one long four short, one long PIC 1 error
one long, five short, one long DMA page register error
one long, six short, one long RAM refresh error
one long, seven short, one long RAM data error
one long, eight short, one long RAM parity error
one long, nine short, one long DMA controller 0 error
one long, ten short, one long CMOS RAM error
one long, eleven short, one long DMA controller 1 error
one long, twelve short, one long CMOS RAM battery error
one long, thirteen short, one long CMOS RAM checksum error
one long fourteen short, one long BIOS ROM checksum error

Phoenix BIOS

Beep Codes Message

one, one, three CMOS Read/Write
one, one, four ROM BIOS Checksum failure
one, two, one Programmable Interval Timer failure
one, two, two DMA Initialisation failure
one, two, three DMA Page Register Read/Write failure
one, three, one RAM Refresh Verification error
one, three, three First 64K RAM Chip/Data Line failure
one, three, four First 64K RAM Odd/Even Logic
one, four, one First 64K RAM: Address Line
one, four, two First 64K RAM: Parity failure
one, four, three Fail-Safe Timer Feature (EISA only)
one, four, four Software NMI Port failure (EISA only)
two (followed by various combinations) First 64K RAM Chip/Data Line failure (combinations indicate which bit)
three, one, one Slave DMA Register failure
three, one, two Master DMA Register failure
three, one, three Master Interrupt Mask Register failure
three, one, four Slave Interrupt Mask Register failure
three, two, four Keyboard Controller failure
three, three, four Display Memory failure
three, four, one Display Retrace failure
three, four, two Video ROM search proceeding
four, two, one Timer Tick failure
four, two, two Shutdown failure
four, two, three Gate A20 failure
four, two, four Unexpected Interrupt in Protected Mode
four, three, one RAM test above 64K failure
four, three, two/three Programmable Interval Timer, Channel 2 failure
four, three, four Realtime Clock failure
four, four, one Serial Port error
four, four, two Parallel Port error
four, four, three Math Co-processor failure
(tone) one, one, two System Board Select
(tone) one, one, three Extender CMOS RAM

Quadtel BIOS

Beep Codes Message

one short Indicates that the system is booting properly
two short CMOS IC error
one long, two short Video error
one long, three short Peripheral controller error

Windows Operating Systems Shortcut keys

Shortcut Keys Description
Ctrl + (the '+' key on the keypad) Automatically adjust the width's of all the columns in Windows explorer
Ctrl + Backspace Delete word to the left of cursor
Alt + E Edit options in current program
Alt + Enter Opens properties window of Selected icon or program
Alt + Esc Switch Between open applications on taskbar
Alt + F File menu options in current program
Alt + F4 Closes Current open program
Alt + Print Screen Copies active window to the clipboard
Alt + Shift + Tab Switch backwards between open applications
Alt + Tab Switch between open applications
Ctrl + A Select all text
Ctrl + C Copy highlighted text, data, or image
Ctrl + Del Delete word to the right of cursor
Ctrl + End Goes to end of document
Ctrl + Esc Bring Up start button
Ctrl + F4 Closes Window in Program
Ctrl + Home Goes to beginning of document
Ctrl + Insert Copy selected item
Ctrl + Left arrow Moves one word to the left at a time
Ctrl + Right arrow Moves one word to the right at a time
Ctrl + V Paste
Ctrl + X Cut selected item
Ctrl + Z Undoes a previous action
End Goes to end of current line
F1 Accesses online help from most programs
F2 Renames selected Icon
F3 Starts find from desktop
F4 Opens the drive selection when browsing
F5 Refresh Contents
Holding Shift Boot safe mode or by pass system files
Holding Shift When putting in an audio CD will prevent CD Player from playing
Home Goes to beginning of current line
Shift + Del Cut selected item
Shift + Del Delete programs/files without throwing into the recycle bin
Shift + End Highlights from current position to end of line
Shift + F10 Simulates right click on selected item
Shift + Home Highlights from current position to beginning of line
Shift + Insert Paste

Microsoft Windows Shortcut Keys

Below is a listing of Windows keys that can be used on computers running a Microsoft Windows operating system and using a keyboard with a Windows key.

Shortcut Keys Description
Windows Key + D Minimizes all windows and returns the user to the desktop
Windows Key + E Open Microsoft Explorer
Windows Key + F Display the Windows Search / Find feature
Windows Key + CTRL + F Display the search for computers window
Windows Key + F1 Display the Microsoft Windows help
Windows Key + L Lock the computer (Windows XP and above only)
Windows Key + M Minimizes all windows
Windows Key + Pause / Break key Open the system properties window
Windows Key + R Open the run window
Windows Key + SHIFT + M Undo the minimize
Windows Key + Tab Cycle through open programs through the taskbar
Windows Key+ U Open Utility Manager

Word Shortcut Keys

Shortcut Keys Description
Ctrl + A Select all contents of the page
Ctrl + B Bold highlighted selection
Ctrl + C Copy selected text
Ctrl + X Cut selected text
Ctrl + P Paste
Ctrl + F Open find box
Ctrl + I Italic highlighted selection
Ctrl + K Insert link
Ctrl + U Underline highlighted selection
Ctrl + Y Repeat the last action performed
Ctrl + Z Undo last action
Ctrl + L

Aligns the line or selected text to the left of the screen
Ctrl + E Aligns the line or selected text to the center of the screen
Ctrl + R Aligns the line or selected text to the right of the screen
Ctrl + M Indent the paragraph
Ctrl + Shift + F Change the font
Ctrl + Shift + > Increase selected font +1
Ctrl + ] Increase selected font +1
Ctrl + Shift + <> Moves one word to the left
Ctrl + Moves one word to the right
Ctrl + Moves to the beginning of the line or paragraph
Ctrl + Moves to the end of the paragraph
Ctrl + Del Deletes word to right of cursor
Ctrl + Backspace Deletes word to left of cursor
Ctrl + End Moves the cursor to the end of the document
Ctrl + Home Moves the cursor to the beginning of the document
Ctrl + Spacebar Enable / Disable auto correction
Ctrl + 1 Single-space lines
Ctrl + 2 Double-space lines
Ctrl + 5 1.5-line spacing
Ctrl + Alt + 1 Changes text to heading 1
Ctrl + Alt + 2 Changes text to heading 2
Ctrl + Alt + 3 Changes text to heading 3
F1 Open Help
Shift + F3 Change the case of the selected text
F4 Repeat the last action performed (2000+)
F5 Open goto window
F7 Spell check selected text and or document
Shift + F7 Activate the thesaurus
F12 Save as
Shfit + F12 Save

Excel Shortcut Keys

Shortcut Keys Description
F7 Spell check selected text and or document
F11 Create chart
Ctrl + Shift + ; Enter the current time
Ctrl + ; Enter the current date
Alt + Shift + F1 Insert New Worksheet
Shift + F3 Open the Excel formula window
Shift + F5 Bring up search box
Ctrl + A Select all contents of the worksheet
Ctrl + B Bold highlighted selection
Ctrl + I Italic highlighted selection
Ctrl + K Insert link
Ctrl + U Underline highlighted selection
Ctrl + 5 Strikethrough highlighted selection
Ctrl + P Bring up the print dialog box to begin printing
Ctrl + Z Undo last action
Ctrl + F9 Minimize current window
Ctrl + F10 Maximize currently selected window
Ctrl + F6 Switch between open workbooks / windows
Ctrl + Tab Move to next worksheet
Ctrl + Shift + ! Format number in comma format
Ctrl + Shift + $ Format number in currency format
Ctrl + Shift + # Format number in date format
Ctrl + Shift + % Format number in percentage format
Ctrl + Shift + ^ Format number in scientific format
Ctrl + Shift + @ Format number in time format
Ctrl + Arrow key Move to next section of text
Ctrl + Space Select entire column
Shift + Space Select entire row

Mouse Shortcuts

Mouse Shortcuts Description
Double click Selects word
Triple click Selects paragraph
Ctrl + Mouse wheel Zooms in and out of document

Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys

Shortcut Keys Description
Alt + Left Arrow Back a page
Alt + Right Arrow Forward a page
F5 Refresh current page / frame
F11 Display the current website in full screen mode. Pressing F11 again will exit this mode
Esc Stop page or download from loading
Ctrl + Enter Quickly complete an address. As an example, type in: myanna in the address bar and press CTRL + ENTER. will automatically be entered
Ctrl + N Open New browser window
Ctrl + P Print current page / frame

FrontPage Shortcut Keys

Shortcut Keys Description
Ctrl + C Copy selected text
Ctrl + X Cut selected text
Ctrl + P Paste selected text
Ctrl + K Create a hyperlink
Ctrl + B Bold highlighted selection
Ctrl + I Italic highlighted selection
Ctrl + U Underline highlighted selection
Ctrl + L Left align the text
Ctrl + R Right align the text
Ctrl + E Center the text
Ctrl + / Display HTML tags
Ctrl + S Save document
Ctrl + Tab Switch between open web pages
Ctrl + Insert Enter Line break
Ctrl + Enter Move cursor above or below a table
Ctrl + Shift + B Preview in web browser window
Ctrl + Shift + <> Increase font size

Visual Basic Shortcut Keys

Shortcut Keys Description
F2 Brings up the 'Object Browser' window
F3/F4/F6/F11 Brings up the 'Properties Window' for the current form/control
F5 Executes the current project
Ctrl + F5 First checks for syntax errors and then executes the project
F7 Opens the code window for the current control
F8 Executes the project in 'Step mode'. Keep pressing F8 to execute the next statement; Press F5 to come out of step mode
F9 Inserts break point at the current line in the code window. Press F9 again to toggle the break point
Ctrl + G Brings up the 'Immediate window', which is useful for debugging purposes
Ctrl + Spacebar While writing code, this combination helps you see the available options/methods/properties based on what you are typing
Ctrl + J Same as above...
Shift + F2 Place the cursor over any function call and press Shift + F2 to see the declaration of that function
Ctrl + F Brings up the find dialog box
Ctrl + H Brings up the replace dialog box
Shift + F3 Finds the previous occurrence of a string
Ctrl + Shift + F9 Clears all break points
Ctrl + Delete Deletes to the end of the word
Crtl + Y Deletes the current line of code
Ctrl + Z Undoes the last change in the code window
Ctrl + Up/Down arrows Helps you move between procedures/functions in the code window

Outlook Shortcut Keys

Shortcut Keys Description
Alt + S Sends the current mail
Ctrl + Enter Sends the current mail
Ctrl + K Resolves the email addresses from the address book
Alt + K Resolves the email addresses from the address book
F7 Starts spell check
Ctrl + D Deletes the current mail
Shift + Delete Permanently deletes the current mail
Ctrl + Z Undoes the last change
Ctrl + Y Redoes the last change
F4 Brings up the Find dialog box
Shift + F4 Finds the next occurrence of the search string
Ctrl + R Brings up the reply window for the current mail
Ctrl + Shift + R Brings up the 'reply all' window for the current mail
Ctrl + P Prints the current mail
F5 Sends and receives mails

Windows Vista Tips

Windows Vista Security

Microsoft's continuing focus on security will be evident in this new operating system. They are basing the foundation of Vista around security. Windows customers should be confident that this operating system will protect their computer and information against the latest worms, viruses and malware. However, in the unlikely event you should fall victim to a successful attack, Windows Vista will ensure the damage is minimal.

Below, I have outlined a few of Vista's security features:

User Account Protection:

Vista's user account gives added protection and allows for users to be allowed to run applications under a standard account. But, in the event the standard account user is unknowingly trying to run a malicious code, Vista will intervene and not allow the user to continue. Or, if a standard user account is trying to install a hotel printer driver, Vista will just simply ask you to confirm your intensions and provide credentials.

Protection from malware:

Malware can cause company IT departments and their users to waste significant amounts of times in dealing with the effects that it creates. Windows Vista includes powerful features that can stop malware before it can cause any problems. Not only will this be a huge time saver for any IT department, but it will also allow the operating system to run much smoother.

Multi-tiered data protection:

By using advanced data protection technologies, Windows Vista reduces the risk of your data on a stolen/missing laptop from being compromised. Windows Vista supports full-volume encryption to prevent other operating systems from accessing its data.

Another optional disk access prevention feature is the TPM v1.2 chip (Trusted Platform Model) that can be installed on your computer to store encryption keys. By using the TPM, the entire system partition is encrypted (both the hibernation file and the user data).

Custom authentication mechanisms:

The use of a user name and password for many companies is no longer a fail safe method of security. Windows Vista has improved upon Smart Card support making it easier for developers to add custom authentication methods such as biometrics and tokens.

Network access protection:

An internal network can be compromised by its mobile computers not having the necessary updates and security settings available due to the use of unsecured networks at hotels, cafes, airports...etc. Windows Vista will only allow a computer to connect to an internal network if certain security criteria are met. If the system has been compromised, it will not be allowed in.


System administrators have full control via Group Policy over what applications are allowed or blocked from communicating with the network. The control of network access is a key component of network security.

Windows Service Hardening:

If an unlikely virus attack were to exploit a vulnerable service, Windows Service Hardening would limit the damage by preventing file system or registry changes from occurring.

Internet Explorer 7 enhancements:

IE7 uses many new features to protect against malicious Web sites, malware, phishing and spoofing attacks. The new Protected Mode would also allow a user to define their own security settings.

Other new features of Internet Explorer 7 include:

- Highlights the address bar when users visit a Secure Sockets Layer-protected site and lets them check the sites security certificate validity.
- If visiting an unsafe site, a phishing filter would warn the user of this risk.
- Clear all cached data with a single mouse click.

Browse more securely and confidently with Internet Explorer 7!

Troubleshooting with Windows Vista

The new Windows Operating System formerly code named "Longhorn" is now named Vista. This new operating system is due out in the middle of 2006. I am going to be writing a great deal about it here at 5 Star Support so that you all can become familiar with it before it comes out. In this tip, I will discuss a little about what you can expect from Vista from a troubleshooting stand-point.

Vista promises to have great troubleshooting features built in to aid users in quickly diagnosing computer issues. For instance, Windows Vista diagnostics can automatically detect and diagnose failing hard disks, faulty memory, degraded performance, loss of a network connection, and problems shutting down. Having the ability to detect a failing Hard Disk before any loss of data occurs, makes this an extremely valuable feature! But, nothing takes the place of good backup practices.

The Windows XP Remote Assistance feature is a huge time saver for all support centers. Vista promises to enhance this feature and make it better by having the ability to remotely connect faster and use less bandwidth. It will even have the ability to function through Network Address Translation (NAT) firewalls. Remote assistance will incorporate its own built-in diagnostic tools available with a single click. You will also be able to reconnect to a Remote Assistance session automatically after restarting your computer. One last enhancement worth a mention is that two administrators will now be able to connect at one time. This will be valuable on those hard to troubleshoot problems that could use a second set of eyes.

Add the "Run" command back to the Start menu

1. Right click an open area of the Taskbar
2. Select Properties
3. Select the Start Menu tab
4. Tick the Start menu entry and click the "Customize" button to the right.
5. Scroll down the list until you find the "Run command" entry.
6. Place a checkmark in the "Run command" checkbox.
7. Click OK.

The Run command should now appear in the Start Menu.

Note: A simple way to access the Run Command is to press the Windows key + R on your keyboard. If you don't know what the windows key is, it is the key that is between CTRL and ALT on either side of the space bar.

Make users to login with a user name and password

If you would like to remove the list of user accounts and have users login using a password and user name, change the following settings:

1. Go to Start
2. In the Search box, type: local security policy
3. Double click the local security policy entry
4. Open "Local Policies"
5. Select "Security Options"
6. Double click the entry titled: "Interactive Login: Do not display last user name"
7. Place a checkmark in the "Enabled" checkbox
8. Click OK

Change Your Folder Options

If you are not comfortable with the default settings that Vista uses, you can easily change these settings, here's how:

1. Go to Start>> Control Panel>> Folder Options icon.
2. Select the View tab.
3. Check or uncheck the options under "Advanced settings:" as you see fit.
4. Click OK when finished.

Change your Product Key

When you purchase a Windows Vista product, all of the different Vista Operating System products are on the same disc. The actual product key that is inserted will determine which Vista product will be activated. If you would like to upgrade to a more feature packed version at some point, all you would need to do is change the product key to activate your newly purchased version. Here's how to change the product key:

1. Go to Start>> Control Panel>> System.
2. At the bottom of the System applet, you'll see a link titled: "Change product key". Click this link.
3. Click Next, then in the resulting window, enter your new product key ID information.
4. Click OK.

Using Sleep and Hibernate Modes

Many people reboot their system after each use. While there really isn't anything wrong with this practice, it may be unnecessary. Especially if you are having to reload several applications after each reboot. A big time saver may be to use Hibernate and/or Sleep modes. Once the system is placed in hibernate or sleep mode, you will not lose any of the applications that are currently open and the system will not need to go through the boot process.

Change Vista Security Center Alerts

When you have an outdated firewall or anti-virus software installed on your system, Windows Vista will pop up with these notifications. If you become annoyed with these constant notifications, you can change the way Vista notifies you. Here's how:

1. Go to Start>> Control Panel>> Windows Security Center.
2. Once in the Windows Security center, click the link on the left pane titled: "Change the way Security Center alerts me".
3. Modify your preferences as you see fit.
4. Click OK when finished.

Remove Favorites Pane in Windows Explorer

1. Open Windows Explorer
2. Select Tools>> Folder Options
3. Select Organize
4. Select Layout from the drop down menu
5. Deselect Navigation Pane.
6. Click OK.

TweakVI for Windows Vista

This free utility is designed to help you customize the Vista user interface. TweakVI supports both 32bit and 64bit versions of Vista and works for any Vista edition. Unlike many other free utilities on the Internet, TweakVI does not load any advertising spyware nor does it have the ability to damage any of your hardware. Below is a list of some of the many things you can do with TweakVI:

* Activate hundreds of Windows Vista settings
* Manage TrueType fonts
* Clean your hard drive
* Improve your Internet connection
* Optimize your CPU cache
* Optimize your RAM
* Manage system updates
* Helps to protect your privacy
* Tweak Internet Explorers Toolbar
* Tweak the Start Menu
* Change the animation on windows
* Increase system speed
* Clean your registry
* Create a 256 MB RAM drive
...and much more!

Restoring personal files using the Windows.old file


The information contained in this article is useful to those that have installed the Windows Vista operating system using the "custom" installation.

When you perform a Custom Installation of Windows Vista, replacing a Windows XP installation. The old operating systems files will be created automatically in a Windows.old folder. This article will instruct users how they can retrieve thier personal files from the Windows.old file once their Windows Vista installation has been successfully installed.

The Windows.old folder contains the following from your replaced Windows XP installation:

* Windows XP files
* Documents and Settings
* Program Files

How To Locate The Windows.old Folder:

When the Windows.old folder is created in Windows Vista, here is where it can be found:

1. Go to Start
2. Type: drive:\windows.old in the Instant Search text box.
3. Click to open the Windows.old file from the Programs list.

Note: You may be required to supply an Administrators password to access this folder.

Restore XPs My Documents Folder to Vista:

This is the most commonly restored folder from the old installation due to it typically having most of the personal files stored. It is advisable when restoring this folder to place it in Windows Vista's "Documents" folder. However, you can relocate this folder where-ever you would like. Here's how to restore the old My Documents folder:

1. Locate your Windows.old folder.
2. Open Windows.old and locate:

Documents and Settings\UserName

3. Right click the My Documents folder and select "Cut".
4. Go to Start>> Documents.
5. Right click the Documents folderand select "Paste".

Your XP My Documents folder will now reside in the Documents folder of Windows Vista.

Restore other personal files located in your Windows.old folder in the same mannor as outlined above. Once you are finished restoring all of the files that you need, you can safely delete the Windows.old folder.

Customize Windows Explorer

For those of you that enjoy customizing your Windows Vista experience. You'll be glad to know that there are other alternatives beyond what Vista shows you in Windows Explorer. You can search for many free alternatives using your favorite search engine, but to get you started, here are a couple of my favorites:

Features in Total Commander 6.56 now include:

* Two file windows side by side
* Multiple language support
* Enhanced search function
* Compare files / synchronize directories
* Quick View panel with bitmap display
* ZIP, ARJ, LZH, RAR, UC2, TAR, GZ, CAB, ACE archive handling + plugins
* Built-in FTP client with FXP (server to server) and HTTP proxy support
* Parallel port link, multi-rename tool
* Tabbed interface, regular expressions, history+favorites buttons
* New: Thumbnails view, custom columns, enhanced search
* And many more!

XYplorer is a multi-tabbed file manager featuring a powerful file search, versatile preview facilities, a highly customizable interface, and an array of unique ways to efficiently automate frequently recurring tasks.

Manage your Startup Items

One way to manage your Startup items in recent Windows versions is to use MSCONFIG. However, there is a free third party utility that goes way beyond what MSCONFIG was designed to do. So if you're a power user and would like to give it a try, here's my recommendation:

<>AutoRuns for Windows

"This utility, which has the most comprehensive knowledge of auto-starting locations of any startup monitor, shows you what programs are configured to run during system bootup or login, and shows you the entries in the order Windows processes them. These programs include ones in your startup folder, Run, RunOnce, and other Registry keys. You can configure Autoruns to show other locations, including Explorer shell extensions, toolbars, browser helper objects, Winlogon notifications, auto-start services, and much more."

Adjust Your Desktop Icon Size Quickly

If you would like to either increase or decrease the size of your desktop icons quickly, here's how:

1. Click an open area of your desktop.
2. While holding down the CTRL button on your keyboard, roll the scroll wheel on your mouse forward to "increase" the icon size and backwards to "decrease" its size.

View Available Restore Points

If you would like to view the available restore points on your computer without making any changes, here how:

1. Go to Start>> Programs>> Accessories>> System Tools>> System Restore.
2. Click the entry titled: Restore my computer to an earlier time.
3. Click Next.
4. Here you will see the available restore points.

View what Services are running in Windows Vista

1. Go to Start
2. Right click "My Computer"
3. Select "Manage" from the resulting menu.
4. Double click "Services and Applications".
5. Click "Services"

Any thing that is marked "Started" is actually running on your computer.
To configure any Service, right click it and select Properties.

Find your programs quickly

Windows Vista has greatly reduced the amount of time it takes to find a certain program loaded on your system. If you click the Start button, you will notice a Search field directly above the Start button. To use this feature, simply type in the program name that you would like to locate. As you type, Instant Search will begin finding the most relevant material pertaining to the letters you've typed. Once you've located the program within the Search list, simply click to open it.

Use Multiple Clocks For Different Time Zones

If you find it difficult to keep track of associates time zones around the globe. Vista has a feature that can help you with this. Here's how to create another clock on your desktop:

1. Right click your clock.
2. Select Adjust Date/Time.
3. Select the Additional Clocks tab.
4. Configure your new clocks time setting.

Note: You can create two additional clocks.

Quickly Access Your Quick Launch Applications

If you have multiple applications in your Quick Launch Toolbar, you can easily access them by using a keyboard command. Here's how:

If you would like to open the application in the first position (from left to right), simply press the Windows key + the number 1 on your keyboard. To access the second, press the Windows key + 2. Increase the numbers that correspond to the applications position in the Quick Launch toolbar.

If you don't know what the Windows key is, it is the key that is situated between the ALT and CTRL keys to the left or right of the Space bar. It has a little "flying Windows" symbol on it.

Let your Gadgets feed you information

Vista has a many gadgets that can be used to feed you information on a wide variety of subjects such as; Traffic reports, Stock reports, Weather Information, Gaming Information, Music, TV, Movies, CPU Utilization and much much more. These mini-applications can deliver this information right to your desktop. The Gadgets can be loaded to your Vista Sidebar and can also be detached from the Sidebar so that it can reside on you Desktop. For more information and to download these Gadgets, click the link below:

Personalize Windows Vista Sidebar

Rollback a driver to the previous version

If installing an updated driver creates system problems, you can rollback the driver to its pervious version. Here's how:

Note: You must be logged in as the Administrator.

1. Go to Start
2. Select Control Panel
3. Select System and Maintenance
4. Select Device Manager (you may receive a UAC prompt for password information at this point)
5. Expand the category containing the device in question by double clicking the category.
6. Double click the device that contains the driver that you would like to rollback.
7. Select the Driver tab
8. Select Roll Back Driver

Note: If the Roll Back Driver button is not available, this means that there is no previous version for this device.

Pin System Restore to your Start Menu for Quick Access

The System Restore feature is a very popular feature for those that experience problems in their Vista installation. If you would like to "pin" system restore in your start menu where you can always easily find it, here's how:

1. Go to Start
2. Select All Programs
3. Select Accessories
4. Select System Tools
5. Right click the System Restore entry in System Tools and select "Pin to Start Menu" from the resulting options.

To learn more about System Restore, visit our Vista System Restore Frequently Asked Questions page.

Install and Uninstall Additional Fonts in Vista

Note: Be sure that when you download fonts from the Internet that you are doing this from a trusted source.

Install a Font:

1. Go to Start
2. Select Control Panel
3. Select Appearance and Personalization
4. Select Fonts
5. Select File (if the File option is not visible, press the ALT key on your keyboard)
6. Select Install New Font
7. Select the drive where the fonts you are trying to add are located
8. Select eh folder where your downloaded fonts are located
9. Select the font that you would like to install
10. Select Install

Uninstall a Font:

1. Follow steps 1 - 4 above
2. Select eh font that you would like to uninstall (to select multiple fonts, hold down the CTRL key then click each individual font)
3. Select File
4. Select Delete

Enable the Hidden Aurora Boot Screen

If you get a little tired of the default Vista boot screen, you can enable a hidden boot screen that many feel is a more appealing boot screen. Here's how:

1. Go to Start
2. In the Search field, type in: msconfig
3. Press Enter on your keyboard
4. Select the Boot tab
5. Place a checkmark in the checkbox titled: "No GUI boot"
6. Click OK and reboot your system

Turn Off The Welcome Center

1. Go to Start
2. Select Control Panel
3. Select the Welcome Center icon
4. Uncheck the checkbox titled: "Welcome Center"
5. Click OK

Install Vista's Games

Some of the Vista versions do not come with the games pre-installed. If you would like to install them, here's how:

1. Go to Start
2. Select Control Panel
3. Select Programs and Features
4. Select "Turn Windows features on or off"
5. Place a checkmark in the checkbox titled: "Games"
6. Click OK

Resize Icons with a scroll mouse

If you're not happy with the icon sizes on your desktop, you can simply resize them by using your scroll mouse. Here's how:

Hold down the CTRL key on your keyboard and then move your scroll wheel on your mouse either upwards or downward to create the desired size.

Enable Secure Logon

A good method of making your system more secure is to make it require a user to press CTRL + ALT + DELETE in order to logon to the system. Once this is enabled, you will invoke a secured Windows logon screen where you can safely enter your user name and password without risk of either being stolen by possible viruses or malware. Here's how to set this up:

1. Go to Start
2. In the Search field, type in: netplwiz
3. Press Enter on your keyboard
4. Select the Advanced tab
5. Place a checkmark in the checkbox titled: "Require users to press Ctrl+Alt+Delete"
6. Select OK

Enable Speech Recognition

If you want to speak to your computer and make it obey your every command, you can do this in Vista. Among the many things that you can make your computer do are:

* Write and send e-mails
* Click buttons and other objects
* Start programs
* Dictate text into documents
* Open menus

Here's how to set it up:

1. Go to Start
2. Select Control Panel
3. Select Speech Recognition
4. Select Start Speech Recognition

Once you've enabled this feature, be sure that you check out the tutorials (in Speech Recognition Options) that will help you understand how to setup your microphone and make your computer recognize your voice commands. Please keep in mind, the better you understand the controls of this feature, the better your computer will perform. So, take the time to read and understand how to use the speech recognition feature.

Anytime Upgrade

If you are thinking of upgrading to a different Vista application, you can use "Anytime Upgrade whenever you're ready. Here's how:

1. Go to Start
2. Select Control Panel
3. Select "Anytime Upgrade"
4. Simply follow the on-screen prompts at this pint to complete the upgrade

Change the glass effects colors

If you would like to change the colors of Aero's glass effects, here's how:

1. Right click an empty area of your desktop
2. Select Personalize
3. Select Windows Color and Appearance
4. From here, choose any color you like

Restore Files From Vista's Restore Center

1. Go to Start
2. Select Control Panel
3. Select System and Maintenance
4. Select Back Up and Restore Center
5. From here, you can select from the latest backup or an earlier backup. Select the backup you would like to restore files from
6. Click Next
7. Select the files or folders you would like to restore
8. Click Next
9. Select the location you are restoring to
10. Select "Start restore"

Windows 2000 more tips

Create an Emergency Repair Disk in Windows 2000

1. Go to Start/Programs/Accessories/System Tools and click Backup.
2. On the General tab, click the Create an Emergency Repair Disk button.
3. When prompted, insert a blank, formatted floppy disk in your drive. Click OK.
4. When the process is complete, remove the disk, label it "Emergency Repair Disk," and then store it in a safe location.

To restore your settings from the disk, you need your Windows 2000 CD, the Windows 2000 Setup disks, and the disk. During the restoration process, you can press F1 for more information about your options.

Note : Because missing or corrupted files are replaced with files from the Windows 2000 CD, any changes you made to the system after the original installation are lost.

Create a Startup Disk in Windows 2000

1. Insert a blank, formatted disk into the floppy disk drive, and insert the Windows 2000 CD into the CD-ROM drive. You need four blank, 1.44 MB formatted 3.5-inch disks. Label them "Setup Disk 1," "Setup Disk 2," and so on.
2. Click Start/Run. At the prompt, type the following command, replacing d with the letter of your CD-ROM drive and a with the letter of your floppy disk drive.

d:\bootdisk\Makeboot.exe a:

3. Follow the instructions that appear.

Note: The startup disks are used to start Setup if you can't start Setup from your hard drive. Startup disks contain different information from the Emergency Repair Disk.

Windows 2000's Indexing Service

The Indexing Service, which Windows 2000 Professional obtained from Internet Information Services (IIS), indexes the content of files in local and network storage, enabling the file system to become a rich data store. Using search bar in Windows Explorer, users can find files faster. The Indexing Service indexes a file's contents and properties. For example, users can search the index for all documents that contain the words "Windows 2000" or search for all documents written by "Mohammed." Windows 2000 Professional does not enable the Indexing Service in a default installation, but users can easily enable it by clicking the Indexing Service hyperlink in Windows Explorer's Search bar.

Get Immediate Queries With Indexing Service

By default, Indexing Service only indexes when applications and peripherals are not in use. If you type or move the mouse, indexing ceases for a couple of minutes. Also, if there are changes on the disk, Indexing Service won't index them for up to five minutes. This can be frustrating if you want to immediately query for files you just changed. To update as soon as possible:

1. In the Indexing Service MMC, right-click Indexing Service and then click "Stop the service."

2. Right-click Indexing Service and then select All Tasks/Tune Performance.

3. Click the Customize radio button and then click the Customize button.

4. Click and drag Indexing over to Instant.

5. Press OK twice.

6. Right-click Indexing Service and then click Start.

Now your changed files will be indexed in a few seconds or less. For more Indexing Service samples, see the Windows 2000 Platform Software Development Kit.

Configure Your Calling Card Dial-up Setup

With Windows 2000, you can easily configure your calling card dial-up setup by controlling how each step is handled during the calling card PIN and account dialing process.

To modify an existing calling card:

1. In Control Panel, double-click the Phone and Modem Options icon.

2. On the Dialing Rules tab, select the location that you want to modify and click Edit to open the Edit Location dialog box. When you’ve finished your edits, click OK.

3. In the Edit Location dialog box, open the Calling Card tab page, click the card type you want to modify, and then click Edit.

4. To change the calling card name or number or your personal identification number (PIN), click the General tab and enter your changes into the appropriate text boxes.

5. To change the access number or dialing steps for the corresponding type of call, click the Long Distance, International, or Local Calls tab and enter the appropriate information.

Using Personalized Menus

The Personalized Menus option keeps the Programs menu clean by hiding items you haven't used recently, while keeping all of your programs easily accessible. When Personalized Menus is turned on, Windows 2000 keeps track of which programs you use each time you use your computer, and hides the programs you have not used in a long time. You can still gain access to hidden programs by clicking Start, pointing to Programs, and then clicking the down arrow at the bottom of the menu. To turn on Personalized Menus, click Start, point to Settings, click Taskbar & Start Menu, and then select Use Personalized Menus on the General tab.

Remove and Personalize Desktop Icons

If you want to streamline your desktop and frequently used applications, simply drag a desktop icon to the Quick Launch portion of the taskbar. The relocated icon appears next to the other Quick Launch icons (e.g., Internet Explorer, Outlook Express). To remove the icon that still remains on the desktop, drag it to the Recycle Bin. With this icon removed from the desktop, there will be one less icon to hunt for when you need to start a commonly-used program.
Also, if you need to access My Computer on a regular basis, drag the My Computer icon to the Start button and you will automatically create a cascading shortcut to My Computer that will expand to reveal your drives, folders, and files. With Windows 2000 incorporating the use of tool tips, you can also hold your cursor over a partition in the Start Menu for a moment to view its free space and capacity. You can execute a file just by single-clicking it in the Start Menu and open a folder by double-clicking it.

Installation Errors

In some cases, Win2K will abort its installation and report that it has detected software that has not completely installed. Win2K generates this message if there is any data associated in either of the Registry keys below. Navigate to the end of these keys and click the last entry to open it's contents in the right pane. You can correct the problem by deleting any data in these keys. Then, when you restart the install, it should proceed normally.

* HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\RunOnceEx
* HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Runonce

Print Appt's and Meetings from Calendar

If you would like to print only the appointments or meetings for a particular day, here's how:

Click Calendar. Select View> Current View, and click Day/Week/Month. Display the days you want to print in the view. Select File, Print. Click Calendar Details Style in the Print Style box. To print a new page at the start of every day, click Page Setup. Select the "Start A New Page Each check box" and then select an option. Click
OK twice. That's it!

Note: If there's nothing going on for a day, it won't print!

Add web content to your desktop

You can add a picture from the Internet to your desktop or add an item from the Active Desktop Gallery (such as a stock ticker, updated news, entertainment, or weather. Right-click a blank area on the desktop, point to Active Desktop, click New Desktop Item, and then follow the instructions on your screen.

Create a locking desktop shortcut

Create a desktop shortcut that you can double-click to lock your computer. You'll find this shortcut handy for locking your computer whenever you want to step away from your desk. Here's how to set it up:

1. Create a shortcut to the rundll32.exe file in your \WINNT\System32 folder.
2. Modify the properties of the shortcut so that the Target text box reads as follows:

C:\WINNT\system32\rundll32.exe user32.dll, LockWorkStation

3. Click OK to save your changes.

Note: When you double-click on this shortcut, Windows NT locks your computer and displays the Unlock Computer dialog box (for logging back in).

Changing Drive Letters

If you find the need to change a drive letter, Windows 2000 makes this possible. Here's how:

1. In the Control Panel, select Administrative Tools. The Administrative Tools folder will pop up.
2. In that folder, select Computer Management.
3. Click on Disk Management and wait for the Logical Disk Manager Service to finish scanning your system's drives. You will then see a list of the drives available in your system.
4. Click on the drive with the drive letter you want to change.
5. Right click and select the Change Drive Letter and Path... option.
6. All drive letters linked to that drive will be listed on this popup screen.
7. Click on the drive letter you want to change and click on Edit.
8. Click on the drive letter and a whole list of available drive letter choices will now appear.
9. Select the drive letter you want for this drive.
10. Click OK and your drive will have a new drive letter.

Notes: You will not be able to change the drive letter of your system or boot volume. However, the drive letters of all other drives and drive volumes are changeable.

If you want to change the drive letter of a CD/DVD-ROM or ZIP drive, make sure you insert a disk first. The drive letter cannot be changed unless there's a disk in the drive.

Some software may not work properly if you change any drive letter. So, you may need to do some registry editing to get those software to work with the new drive letter. If that doesn't work, you will have to reinstall the software using the new drive letter or reset the drive letter back to its original drive letter.

Prevent Programs From Loading

Windows is adding links directly into the Registry so that users can't easily remove them. These programs can be very taxing to your system resources and should you need to remove one (or more), here's how:

1. Open up the Registry Editor (Start Menu > Run > type in: regedit). [Enter]
2. In Registry Editor, go to My Computer -> HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE > Software > Microsoft > Windows > CurrentVersion > Run.
3. Select the program you want removed, right click and choose Delete.
4. Once removed, Windows 2000 will no longer load this program at start up.
5. Close Registry Editor and restart Windows 2000 for the changes to take effect.

Notes: Be careful of what you delete. It may be very hard to recreate the link. Just to be safe, it's best to save (export) the Run registry branch so that you can undo the changes later.

If you made a mistake and can't remember what the exact command line for the link was, you can try creating a shortcut to the program in question and moving it to the Startup folder.

Modem Detection At Start Up

If you forget to turn your modem on, Windows 2000 will certainly not recognize it and will give you an error "Unable to Connect". I know there are those of you that are just as annoyed as I am over this. Restarting Win2K all over again then turning on the modem is a waste of time. Below, is a permanent work-a-round for this issue:

1. Go to Control Panel and select Phone and Modem Options.
2. Select the Modems tab and you will see a screen similar to the one below
3. Remove your existing modem by selecting it and then clicking on the Remove button.
4. Click on the Add... button.
5. Tick the Don't detect my modem option and click on the Next button.
6. Select your modem model.

* If you have the driver for your modem on a disk or CD, you can load it using the Have Disk option. If your modem isn't listed in this screen and you don't have the specific driver for it, you can always select one of the generic drivers for your modem.

7. Select the correct port for your modem.
8. After clicking the Next button, Windows 2000 will install the driver.
9. Click on Finish and the Phone and Modem Options page should appear.

* From now on, you won't need to remember to turn on your modem before you boot up Windows 2000. You can turn on your modem just before you need to use it, saving power and reducing the wear and tear on your modem ( the modem will get very hot even when not actually in use).
* If Windows 2000 is auto detecting your modem at startup, that means you have left your modem on! If you always keep your modem turned on, then there's no need for you to use this tip. If you use this tip, make sure your modem is turned off before Windows 2000 boots to avoid the auto detection process.

Windows 2000 Tips

Uninstall a device

To uninstall a device in Windows 2000, open Add/Remove Hardware in the Control Panel. click Next, click Uninstall/Unplug a device, and click Next again. Then click Uninstall a device, click Next, click the device you want to uninstall, click Next, and follow the instructions that appear on your screen. When you are done uninstalling, go ahead and remove the device from the computer.

Specify your default printer

To select your default printer in Windows 2000, open Printers, right-click the printer you want to use as default printer, and then click Set as Default Printer. A check mark should appear next to the printer icon in the Printers folder. You can have only one default printer; it should be the printer you use most often.

Diagnose Hardware Problems

If you're having problems with one of your peripherals, Windows 2000 has a handy utility that can help you find out what's wrong. Open Add/Remove Hardware in Control Panel, click Next, click "Add/Troubleshoot a device", and then click Next. Once Windows 2000 finishes searching for new Plug and Play devices, choose the device you want to diagnose and fix, click Next, and follow the instructions on the screen.

Detecting and Repairing Disk Errors

You can use Windows 2000's Error-checking tool to find file system errors and bad sectors on your hard disk. Open My Computer and select the local disk you want to check. On the File menu, click Properties, then click the Tools tab. Under Error-checking, click Check Now, and under "Check disk options" select the "Scan for and attempt recovery of bad sectors" check box.

Send a Quick Email

If you want to send a quick e-mail, perform one of the following steps:

* Type mailto: in the Run box (found in the Start menu)
* Type mailto: in the Address box of Internet Explorer
* Create a shortcut

You'll save yourself a few steps by not going into your default email application and starting a new mail message.

Check your connection status

Place your mouse cursor over the "Network Monitor" icon to display pop up information about the current status of your connection, speed, and packets send and received. To display a full status window or to disconnect the network connection, double-click the icon.

Setting DMA and Display Settings

Direct Memory Access (DMA) is frequently used for data transfer directly between memory and a peripheral device such as a disk drive. If you encounter difficulty with your DVD-ROM setup, the DMA might not be turned on. Check the DMA and confirm that it's turned on.

To turn on DMA in Windows 2000:

1. In Control Panel, click the System icon and click the Hardware tab.

2. Select "IDE ATA/ATAPI controllers".

3. Right-click the Primary IDE Channel icon and select Properties.

4. Click the Advanced Settings tab and select the DMA check box (if it’s not selected already).

5. Click OK.

If you get an error about unavailable overlay surface, reduce the display resolution or number of colors. You may also get the following error: "Unable to create video window. Please try altering your display settings."

To modify your display settings:

1. Right-click your desktop.

2. Click Properties.

3. Select the Settings tab and make the appropriate changes.

Make a File or Folder Available Offline

To make a file or folder available offline:

1. In My Computer or My Network Places, click the shared network file or folder that you want to make available offline.
2. On the File menu, click Make Available Offline.

Using Folder Shortcuts

Folder shortcuts are a new feature of the Windows 2000 shell, allowing you to make any folder on the user's machine act as if it were another folder. Unlike traditional shortcuts, Folder shortcuts integrate the target into the shell namespace, allowing you to present a direct hierarchy. For example, if you drag and drop an icon for a folder or disk drive to your Start menu, Windows 2000 creates a shortcut that cascades to expose the contents of the target of the shortcut.

To create a folder shortcut:

1. Drag and drop a folder or disk drive icon onto your Start menu.
2. Click the Start menu, then point to the folder or drive that you just moved.

The target of the folder or drive shortcut has been grafted into the shell namespace. This reduces any confusion, because the Up button actually goes back up to the folder that contained the folder shortcut.

Note: If you open an Explorer window on the Start menu, you will see that the tree view expands through the folder shortcut.

Change Your Computer Name

If your computer is configured with a name that no one can recognize (for example, a string of unrelated letters and numbers), you may decide to give your computer a more intuitive or personal name. Open System in Control Panel, then click Properties on the Network Identification tab. In the "Computer name" field, type a new name for the computer and click OK. If the computer is a member of a domain, you will be prompted to provide a user name and user password to rename the computer. You must be logged on as an administrator to the local computer to change the computer name.

Create Strong Passwords

Good computer security includes the use of strong passwords for your network logon and the Administrator account on your computer. For a password to be strong and hard to break, it should be at least seven characters long and contain a combination of letters, numerals, and symbols (make sure to have at least one symbol character in the second through sixth positions). Your new password should be significantly different from prior passwords; it also should not contain your name, user name, or any common word or name.

System Requirements for Windows 2000

Windows 2000 Professional:

*133 MHz or higher Pentium-compatible CPU.
*64 megabytes (MB) of RAM recommended minimum; more memory generally improves responsiveness.
*2 GB hard disk with a minimum of 1 GB of free space. (Additional free hard disk space is required if you are installing over a network.)
*Windows 2000 Professional supports single and dual CPU systems.

Windows 2000 Server:

*133 MHz or higher Pentium-compatible CPU.
*256 megabytes (MB) of RAM recommended minimum [128 MB minimum supported; 4 gigabytes (GB) maximum].
*2 GB hard disk with a minimum of 1.0 GB free space. (Additional free hard disk space is required if you are installing over a network.)
*Windows 2000 Server supports up to four CPUs on one machine.

Windows 2000 Advanced Server:

*133 MHz or higher Pentium-compatible CPU.
*256 MB of RAM recommended minimum (128 MB minimum supported; 8 GB maximum).
*2 GB hard disk with a minimum of 1.0 GB free space. (Additional free hard disk space is required if you are installing over a network.)
*Windows 2000 Advanced Server supports up to eight CPUs on one machine.

TweakUI from Microsoft

System Requirements:
Windows 2000, Windows NT, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows 98 or Windows 95.

How to Download:

1. Create a folder by right-clicking on the desktop, click New, and then click Folder. Type a name for the folder. I named mine PowerTools.
2. Click the TweakUI link below. In the File download dialog box that appears on your screen, click Save Program to Disk.
3. In the Save As dialog box, choose to save the file in the folder you just created, then click Save.
4. Open the folder and double-click the downloaded file. This may create several new files in your folder. Among these, look for "Read Me" or "INF" files.
5. The "Read Me" file will contain any additional download information you need to know. To install the file, right click the .INF file and click Install

Note: There's a bug in this installer (it's been there since the very first release, except for the new version for Windows XP). If it prompts you to insert a disk or specify the location of the Tweakui files, just point to the folder containing the files you just unzipped, and click OK.

Macintosh Tips

Enable Audio CD's on your Mac
Make sure that you have the "Foreign File Access" and "Audio CD Access" extensions loaded in your extensions folder. They must also be enabled under Extension Manager for audio CD's to run.

Starting up from your System CD

When you put in the System Installer CD before you turn it on, it should boot off of the CD automatically. If it won't then try some "Key" combinations to force it to. Holding down the "C" key while your computer starts will tell the computer to start from the CD ROM. You can also use "Command"> "Option"> "Shift"> "Delete" to bypass your hard drive.

Adding Hardware to your Mac

If you are planning to add a new internal SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) device to your Mac, ensure that it has a unique SCSI ID for each device. For most devises, the ID is set using buttons or knobs. Jumpers are used to set SCSI ID's to internal devices. Most manufactures include jumpers with the drive. Be aware that all Apple and most third party hard drives are set to SCSI ID "0". Your Mac itself is set to SCSI ID "7". If you have an internal CD ROM, it is set to SCSI ID "3". Here are the jumper assignments for the 7 SCSI IDs:

ID 0 = no jumpers
ID 1 = jumper the first pair of pins
ID 2 = jumper the second pair
ID 3 = jumper the first and second pair
ID 4 = jumper the third pair
ID 5 = jumper the first and third pair
ID 6 = jumper the second and third pair

Warning: Never plug or unplug SCSI devices with the power on.

Rebuild the Desktop

Rebuilding your desktop re-links documents to their correct applications and rewrites the desktop file. The usual way to do this is to restart your Mac and hold down the "Option" and "Command" keys. Here is a shortcut: Close all applications and then press "Option">"Command">"Escape". A resulting window will pop up asking if you want to force the Finder to quit. Hold down "Command" and "Option" again and click "Force Quit". Now you will be ask if you want to rebuild the desktop. Click "OK". Be sure that you have some room available on your hard drive prior to starting the rebuilding process. A good guideline is 5% or more of space available.
NOTE: Rebuilding the Desktop file erases all comments you have typed in the "Get Info" windows of files on your disk.
FileMakers Pro Recovery Feature

Files can get damaged for many reasons. If this happens, you can use FileMaker Pro's Recovery feature. Before you begin, be sure you have enough space on your hard drive for the recovered file. To repair a file, close the damaged file. From the File menu, choose "Recover". Inside the Open Damaged File box, select the damaged file and click "Open". FileMaker Pro will add "Recovered" to the file name or allow you to rename the file. Click "Save". A status message will inform you about the recovery process. Upon completion, you will see how many bytes were salvaged, and records or values skipped. Click "OK".
NOTE: Files may not be recoverable using this feature. Be sure to properly backup your work.

Calculator Tip

If you have a large compilation of numbers that your working with in your word processor and would like to add them up quickly, try this: From "Edit" in your menu bar, copy the list of numbers. Open up your calculator located under the APPLE in the upper left corner of your menu bar. Paste the list of numbers into your calculator. Click the equal (=) sign.

Apple CD Audio Shortcuts

Did you know that you can use the keyboard to control many of the players functions? Here's how:

* Pressing the Tab key allows you to enter text in the highlighted field. Press Tab again to move to the next field.
* Use the Up and Down arrow keys to adjust volume.
* The Space Bar stops and starts the player.
* Use the Right and Left arrow keys to move between tracks.
* Command-Left Arrow rewinds the player.
* Command-Right Arrow fast-forwards the player.

Setting the CD Play List

With the Apple CD Audio Player, you are not stuck listening to the whole CD. You can program the player to play only the songs you want to play, rearrange the songs or repeat your favorite songs.

If you are running system 7.5 or later, the AppleCD Audio Player is included with the operating system. Here's how you can create an index of titles for your CD, then add any songs you want, in any order to the play list. The Mac will remember your settings each time you insert that CD.

1. Insert an audio CD into the CD-ROM drive.

2. Click the tiny triangle to expand the Audio Player's control panel

3. If the songs aren't already named, click the NORMAL button.

4. Click the words "Audio CD" and type the name of the CD.

5. Click the first track name, and begin typing the song titles (press Return after each title to move down to the next blank).

6. After you have entered all the song titles, click the "PROG" button. Now you can drag any title on the left side of the display to any slot on the right side.

You can also can drag titles up or down on the right side play list to rearrange the play order. You can even drag the same song twice or to leave songs out of the play list altogether.

Play music CD's on your Mac

Use your CD ROM to play music while you surf the Web, work on your project or play a game. To be able to play music with a CD, you must have the program "AppleCD Audio Player". This comes with System 7.5 and higher. Run this program and you will see a graphical representation of a CD deck. Insert your music CD into the CD ROM, then click the "Play" button. Adjust the volume using the slide bar.

Prevent CD ROM Windows from Opening

When you insert a disk into your CD ROM, a window showing all of the programs icons when you insert them. This may slow your computer down considerably if the programs are large. It may also seem like an eternity for the program to load. To keep the window from opening, hold down the "Option" key while inserting the CD. You need to keep holding the "Option" key until the CD icon appears.
NOTE: The same trick works for other types of removable disks such as your floppy or zip drives.

Close all windows quickly

If you have a lot of windows open on your screen, it can take some time to close them all. A fast way to close them all is to use "Option" -click on the foremost window so every open window automatically closes immediately.

Random Desktop Pictures

Change your desktop pictures automatically. Here's how:

* Find the folder titled "Sample Desktop Pictures" inside of your Apple Extras Folder.
* Open up the Desktop control panel and click "Remove Picture".
* Drag the Sample Desktop Pictures folder and drop it in the screen area of the Desktop Pictures control panel.
* Close the control panel after it randomly selects a picture.

NOTE: Every time you start your computer you will have a different picture.

Not Enough Memory

If your Mac tells you on startup that "There is not enough memory to load all of your extensions," and you know you have plenty of RAM, dump the "Apple Menu Options Prefs" file found in the Preferences folder of your System Folder. Restart your computer and you will start fresh.

Error code: 108 "Out of Memory"
If you get this error when printing, it's because you have multiple copies of the same font installed on your Mac and that font is used in the document you are trying to print.

Changing the "Default" browser

Do you want to change the default browser on your Mac? Here's how: Go to the Control Panels (under the Apple menu) and select "Internet." With the Internet control panel open, click on the "Web" tab in the middle of the window. At the bottom of the window find an item called "Default Web Browser." In the popup menu next to it, select your preferred browser. If it is not listed, click on "Select" then find your browser of choice. NOTE: The default browser is used any time you double-click on a file that points to a web page.

Improve your browsers performance

Allocating more memory to your browser can help with browsers crashing all the time. Browsers and new web technologies weigh heavy on your memory creating these crashes. Here's how to allocate more memory to your browser: If you have the program currently running, close out of it. Highlight the application's icon and select "Get Info" from the File menu. In the File menu window, you will see "Suggested Size", "Minimum Size", and "Preferred Size". Set Minimum Size the same as Suggested Size, then increase the preferred amount by approximately 25 percent or more. You will need to experiment with "preferred" setting to optimize the performance, but you should see an improvement immediately.

NOTE: You can improve any application's performance using this method.

Improve your Mac's performance

If you would like to speed up your Mac, try these helpful tips: Switch your monitor to the fewest colors your Mac allows; turn off the "Calculate folder sizes" and "Show disk info in header" options; turn virtual memory off, or set it to the amount of actual RAM plus 1 MB; turn AppleTalk off (only if you're not on a network or connected to a printer that needs it).

Custom Welcome Message

If you would like to create a welcome message for your Mac, follow the instructions below: Mac use to require a custom start up screen when designing a custom message, but with multiple user mode it's easier than ever. Design a custom welcome message, which will be on the welcome screen when logging on. Go to the Multiple User control panel. Select the name of the user. Select Options. Under the Login tab is space for a custom greeting. NOTE: This short message can be more than a greeting. Utilize this space to include instructions for logging on or to provide password hints.

A Problem-Free Mac

Here are some helpful suggestions to keep your Mac running smooth and problem-free: Regularly rebuilding your Desktop file keeps critical information clean. Make it a habit of holding down "Command"-"Option" at least once a week when you start up your Mac. Familiarize yourself with software you are installing to make sure it is installed correctly. Before you install new software on your computer, always read its "Read Me" or "About file". Don't install more than one piece of new software at a time. Wait a day or two between installs so you can isolate problems if they appear. Keep a record of what you install and when you install it. Unless instructed otherwise, always restart with extensions off when installing new applications. Here's how: Hold down the "shift" key until you can view the message "Welcome to Mac OS". Don't move a program or any of its files (such as a dictionary or other support files) out of the folder in which its installer placed it. If you need access to a file, select the file that's more convenient, press "control" M to create an alias of it, then place the alias anywhere you like. Keep a current backup of your system configuration. A good backup will enable you to restore a previous configuration in case something happens.

Saving data when your system freezes

As annoying as this situation is, it does happen. There usually is a way to exit the program without rebooting when your system freezes. You can try pressing the "Option"-"Command"-"Escape" keys at the same time. You will get a prompt asking if you want to exit the program in question. Usually this will work fine.

Manually eject a disk

At one time or another we have all had a disk get stuck in the drive. This can be a very scary situation, but it is really no big deal if you know what to do. First, I would recommend rebooting your machine. Hopefully it will eject on startup. If it doesn't, get a paper clip and insert it into the pin-sized hole next to a drive and gently push. When you have to resort to this method, it is common for your Mac to freeze up and cause problems. Just reboot your machine to get it back to normal.

Free up RAM

If you're running multiple applications and see a drop in your system memory, but quitting the applications does nothing to change this, then what has happened is your system memory has become fragmented. This occurs when you have opened up many applications and what happens is your free memory is broken up into little chunks. To fix this situation, you'll have to quit everything and restart your Mac. This will regroup the RAM and you'll now find that more free memory is now available.

Scale Not Genie

Using the "Genie Effect" to open and close items from the Dock is fun -- for the first time or two. But after the novelty wears off, you'll most likely discover that it draws more processing power than it's worth.

In Mac OS X 10.1 you have a new option called "Scale". It's still cool looking, but it's more efficient CPU-wise. To enable Scale, open the Dock Preferences panel and choose "Minimizing Using Scale Effect".

Switching to Scale doesn't mean that you can't still impress your friends, however. Hold down the SHIFT key while minimizing to create the slow-motion effect that you've seen performed in Apple demos.

Create a PDF File

Many people don't realize that you can create an honest to goodness PDF file from nearly any Mac OS X file. What's the advantage of this? PDF files can be opened by Adobe's Acrobat Reader, which is available for nearly every platform on the planet. You can send PDFs to your Windows, Linux, and even Palm OS friends, and it reads exactly the same as it does on your Mac. They're easy to make once you know how.

Open a document in your favorite application and then choose PRINT. At the bottom of the Print dialogue box you will see a button that reads PREVIEW. Click it and it will process your document and open the Preview application that's included with Mac OS X.

You'll notice that when your document is displayed in Preview, it already looks like a PDF file. Now all you have to do is choose FILE, then Save As PDF, and Mac OS X will convert your document into a real live PDF. Now you can send it to anyone, anywhere.

Eliminating Unwanted Software Updates

The Software Update feature is great, but you may find that there are updates posted that don't apply to you or that you don't need. Take for example the numerous printer updates recently posted. You don't have to install an update if you don't want to, but to stop the Software Update application from reminding you about a particular update just follow this tip...

When an item appears in the Software Update list that you don't want to install, select it from the list, go to the "Update" menu and select "Make Inactive..." This will remove the item from the list and you won't be alerted to the update the next time Software Update runs.

Also under the "Update" menu of the Software Update application is the option "Show Inactive Updates." It does exactly what it says, so if you later decide that you need one of the updates you can go back and get it

Take a picture of your screen

Take a picture of your screen (screen shot)
* To take a picture of your whole screen: Command-Shift-3. You should hear a "click", like a camera shutter. A new file called "Picture 1" will appear on your hard drive. This is the picture of your screen.
* To take a picture of a selected area: Command-Shift-4. Your cursor will turn into a crosshair. Click and drag over the area you want to take a picture of. When you release the mouse button, you will hear a "click" like a camera shutter going off. A file called "Picture 1" will appear on your hard drive. This is the picture you just took.
* Viewing/Using your screen shot: the screen shot (Picture 1) is saved in PICT graphic format. You can open it by double clicking on it, which will launch Simpletext and show you the picture. You can print it from there, or if you want to use it in another application (Like Word or Photoshop), you can click on the picture in the Simpletext document screen and choose Copy from the Edit menu. You can then open the other application and choose Edit/Paste.
* You can take multiple shots- they will be named Picture 1, Picture 2, etc.

Make an Alias

Make an Alias:an alias is a shortcut that points to a file. It's handy for easy access to commonly used applications or documents.

* To make an Alias: find the application or document icon you wish to make an alias of. Click once to select it. Then- Option 1:, go to the File menu, choose Make Alias.
Option 2:hit Command-M or Option 3Hold down the Control key and click on the icon- choose Make Alias from the pop-up menu.
* Using the Alias:Option 1- put the alias on the desktop, for easy access. Double click it to launch the associated file or application. Option 2- put it into the Apple Menu Items folder in the System folder: it will now be available as a choice under the Apple menu. Option 3- Put it in the Startup items folder in the System folder. it will launch the associated file or application every time you start up your computer.

Increase the Memory Allocation

Increase the Memory Allocation for an Application
Note: Perform this ONLY if you are getting "out of memory" or "low memory" error messages:
* Locate the icon for the application. Click once to select it. Go to File/Get Info or hit Command-I. Depending on which version of the system you are using, the info box that comes up might have a "Show" popup, which will be showing "General Information" as the category. Click on the words "General Information" and choose "Memory" from the pop up. (On older systems, memory allocation is showing in the box without having to choose from a pop up.)
* There are 3 memory settings: Suggested (which can't be changed), Minimum, and Preferred. Minimum and Preferred can be changed- simply click and drag over the numbers and type in your own. Set the Minimum to at LEAST as high as the Suggested; Set the Preferred about 1,000K higher. (If you are still getting memory messages, go back and add 1,000k at a time until they go away.)